Wildlife Conservation in India

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Wildlife Conservation is the protection of all forms of life inhabiting the protected areas like national parks,wildlife sanctuaries.Its significance lies in the fact that all living creatures are the part of this complex but fragile web of life and a slight disturbance can play havoc with this web of life.The flora and fauna of this planet is being destroyed at an alarming pace and if sincere efforts are not made at the right time,a huge socio-economic cost can be paid by us,humans.A variety of efforts are going on at the international levels to conserve & preserve the wildlife.A large number of living beings are on the verge of extinction like tigers,elephants,rhinoceros,snow leopards,giant pandas,bears,birds like siberian cranes,western tragopan,vultures.The disappearance of these mammals like tigers,lions,bears has emboldened the vested elements to destroy the forests as their fearsome inhabitants cease to exist in these places.Worldwide efforts are made to create more areas as protected areas so that more and more habitats can be provided to these wildlife creatures.But the ever soaring human population has posed most serious threat.More areas are converted into concrete foests to accommodate the human needs and greeds.

Why India is a significant country in the wildlife context.Because India has numerous habitats suitable for varied wildlife-Perpetually snow clad himalayan ranges and lower himayan ranges in the north India offer habitat for species like snow leopard,ibex ,bharal,himalayan bears,wolves,elephants,leopards,countless birds,-deserts states in the west India offer ideal habitat for species like tigers,Asiatic lions,numerous bird species,camels,-western and eastern ghats in south India offer ideal habitat for species endemic to that areas,Western ghats are declared as a biodiversity hotspot for wildlife,-coastal eastern India offer unique habitat for the various species inhabiting that areas,-lastly north-east India has ideal habitat for species like rhinoceros,buffalos,elephants.
Different projects were launched in India aimed at conservation of wildlife.Most ambitious and most discussed project,project Tiger, was launched in 1973-74, and is one of our most successful conservation ventures in the recent times.The project aims at tiger conservation.It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in the natural environment.In 1970,a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972, the Wildlife Protection Act came into force.

Other important wildlife conservation effort in India is saving one-horned rhinos which are found in world famous Kaziranga and Manas National parks in the north-eastern State,Assam Though strict mearures are being taken to salvage this wonderful species but ongoing insurgency and borders with Bangladesh,Mynmar, Bhutan is making enforcement measures almost ineffective and poaching is going on.
Efforts are being made to protect once abundant asiatic elephants.Elephants are threatened by poaching for their tusks,by the loss of habitat due to human pressure on forested areas and due to human conflict.The isolated populations of wild elephants in individual wildlife sanctuaries are also threatened by loss of genetic diversity.Recently a number of corridors connecting wildlife sanctuaries have been established to encourage the migration of wild elephants.
Despite best and sincere efforts by India,the genuine problems like -soaring human number and their genuine needs,-rampant corruption in all walks of life-illiterate sea of humanity and their inability to meet their basic needs,-organised and well equipped poachers,ill equipped and demoralised forest officials-pose serious threat to wildlife conservation efforts in India.

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