The Category of Hair Disorders

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Hair disorders is any condition which affect the hair shaft and the hair folicle. Hair disorders occurs in both sexes and at all ages. Hair dissorder can affect individual expression may affect self-esteem, social functioning, and quality of life.

The category of hair disorders include:
1. Excessive Hair (Hirsutism)
Hirsutism may be defined as excess hair on a woman in the places only adult men "should" grow hair. A person's age, sex, racial and ethnic origin, and hereditary factors determine the amount of body hair.

Hirsutism is usually caused by an increased sensitivity of the skin to a group of hormones called androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) or increased production of these hormones. Androgen disorders (hyperandrogenism) affects between 5% to 10% of all women.

2. Hair Loss
Hair loss may develop gradually or suddenly. It results from hereditary factors, aging, local skin conditions, and diseases that affect the body generally (systemic diseases). Many different drugs can also cause hair loss. When it occurs on the head, hair loss is generally referred to as baldness.

- Androgenetic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss, eventually affecting about half of all men (male-pattern baldness) and 10 to 20% of women (female-pattern baldness). The pattern of hair loss in women differs from male-pattern baldness. The hair loss can begin at any age, even during the teenage years. Androgenetic alopecia caused a variety of genetic, hormones and environmental factors, Which related with hormones called androgens, particularly an androgen called dihydrotestosterone. A slightly elevated level of hormone dihydrotestosterone probably plays a major role, along with genetic factor. Androgens are important for normal male sexual development before birth and during puberty. Androgens also have other important functions in both males and females, such as regulating hair growth and sex drive.

Androgenetic alopecia in women rarely leads to total baldness. Female scalp hair loss may commonly begin at any age through 50 or later, may not have any obvious hereditary association, and may not occur in a recognizable "female-pattern alopecia" of diffuse thinning over the top of the scalp. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head, and the hairline does not recede.

Androgenetic alopecia in men may begin any time after puberty when blood levels of androgens rise. Male pattern baldness is more permanent. It occurs in a characteristic pattern on the scalp: hair loss usually begins at the temples and at the top of the head toward the back, causing a receding hairline and a bald spot. Hair loss may continue until the two sections become joined, leaving a horseshoe-shaped area of hair on the sides and back of the head.

- Alopecia areata is a common skin disorder in which round, irregular patches of hair are suddenly lost. The cause is believed to be an autoimmune reaction, in which the body's immune defenses mistakenly attack the hair follicles. The site of hair loss is usually the scalp or beard. Alopecia areata occurs in both sexes and at all ages but is most common in children and young adults. The hair usually grows back in several months. However, there may be some hereditary factors. People with alopecia areata have a family member who is also affected. People with Alopecia areata may have a higher risk of atopic eczema, asthma, and nasal allergies, as well as other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), and vitiligo. In people with widespread hair loss, regrowth is unlikely.

- Telogen effluvium Is a condition in which excessive shedding of normal club hairs. Telogen effluvium caused by endocrine disorders, stressors, mand medication. These factors may cause termination of the growing phase (anagen) of the hair follicles and transformation into the resting phase (telogen), causing telogen fallout two to four months later. The normal average scalp has 100,000 hairs. Approximately 90% are in anagen, 10% in telogen. Normal average daily hair fallout is 100 hairs. With telogen effluvium, the anagen/telogen ratio may be shifted to 70% anagen, 30% telogen, with average daily shedding of 300 hairs.

3. Hair shaft disorders
Hair shaft disorders is a condition in which the hair shaft is dry, brittle, and coarse. overprocessed hair (coloring, permanent waves, excessive heating) or certain diseases. The most common cause of hair shaft abnormality or hair fragility is trichorrhexis nodosa, with node-like swellings through which the shaft readily fractures. This usually appears as a result of trauma.

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