Introduction of Polyamide Fiber

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The primary raw materials for nylon are coal or petroleum, air and water. These are converted by a series of chemical steps into hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. These are chemicals with short molecules which can join together to form the long chain molecules of nylon.

The spinning of nylon differs fundamentally from techniques that are used in rayon manufacture. Nylon is meltspun. That is to say a molten mass of nylon, formed by melting nylon chips, is forced through holes in a spinneret. As the jets of molten material emerge, they are cooled and solidified by contact with a stream of cold air, forming solid filaments. Many of these filaments are twisted together to form a yarn.

The conversion of nylon chips into fiber comprises two distinct processes: spinning and drawing. Those polyamides used commercially are sufficiently stable to be spun from a melt. Melt spinning involves melting the nylon in an inert atmosphere, controlling the extrusion and solidification of the melt, and collecting the extruded filaments.

The process of drawing irreversibly stretches spun filaments and winds up the stretched yarn. The strength and recoverable extensibility are thereby increased.
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