Dyslexia Within Children. Signs as well as Signs and symptoms of Dyslexia

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Dyslexia indicators for elementary or primary school students
• Doesn’t enjoy going to school.
• Comes home from school most days exhausted, disagreeable and stressed.
• Gets very stressed and anxious as holidays come to an end and a new school term/year approaches.
• Is extremely tired at the beginning of the school year, terms and semesters.
• Appears to be trying really hard at school, but is not making good progress.
• Has trouble learning and reading basic frequently used sight words such as; my, the, in, on, can, we, to, at, be, etc, often given on flashcard to new school starters.
• Is slow to write their name.
• When reading and writing will often mix up letter in words and may read and write numbers, letters and words backwards. For example b can be seen as b, d, p q or even 9.
• When writing or copying written words, has trouble seeing the spaces between the words - they all seem to run together.
• Continues to rely heavily on pictures and illustrations in readers and books.

• Is hesitant and laboured when reading aloud.
• Guesses wildly when reading unknown words instead of trying to sound them out.
• When attempting to sound out unknown words will often confuse the sounds of the letters or letter blends – for example ‘sh’ for ‘ch’.
• Misses whole words when reading aloud. This can be random words or even just the smaller words.
• Mixes up smaller words when reading and may read ‘for’ instead ‘from’ or ‘and’ instead of ‘am’.
• Can learn a word, (with parent or teacher help) on a page in their reader and then cannot recognise the same word on the following pages.
• Will regularly read words backwards, such as ‘was’ for ‘saw’ or ‘no’ for ‘on’.
• When reading, changes difficult words to a shorter version. For example Katherine becomes Kate.
• May skip parts of words when reading, for example will read ‘there’ instead of ‘thermometer’.
• Continually fails to recognise familiar words.
• Memorises whole stories to avoid processing words and reading.

• Has difficulty knowing the correct beginnings and endings for words. For example they can read ‘hop’ but not ‘hopping’.
• Can be easily distracted and lack concentration in the classroom.
• Cannot focus on a task or a piece of work for a period of time, meaning the work doesn’t get completed.
• May have difficulty copying words from the blackboard/whiteboard. Unable to copy long word sequences and copies slowly letter by letter or word part by word part.
• Needs a quiet place with no distractions in order to read or produce any work.
• Has difficulty following a series of instructions.
• Confuses left and right.
• Has a fear of becoming lost.
• Has trouble thinking of words when they are speaking or writing.
• When talking, over uses words such as ‘stuff’ or ‘things’, when having difficulty thinking of a word.
• Has a limited vocabulary.
• Produces messy work, with poor handwriting and many crossings out.
• Doesn’t hold their pencil correctly.
• Makes poor reading progress compared to the average standard in their class.
• Makes very slow progress with spelling.
• Often spells bizarrely, writing words based on the sounds of the letters and random guesses.
• Has trouble gaining understanding or meaning from written text, also known as reading comprehension.
• Has good comprehension skills when tested verbally, but then cannot write the same answers correctly.
• Isn’t able to organise themselves or their possessions.
• Can count aloud, but cannot recognise numbers when written numerically or write them when asked.
• Has difficulty learning their multiplication or times tables.
• Has difficulty learning to tell the time on an analogue clock. They may prefer digital.
• Shows confusion with shape and number patterns, also with number order such as 100’s, 10’s and 1’s
• Is confused by mathematical symbols such as + and x and also terms such as add, subtract, multiply and divide often mixing them up to produce incorrect answers.
• Has difficulty memorising and remembering things, such as days of the week, months, related seasons, birthdays, names.
• Has difficulty remembering things in sequential order.
• Has poor writing caused by a lack of skill with holding and mastering their pencil or pen.
• Their performance at school is adversely affected by a lack of sleep.
• They have very good or very bad days at school.
• Will try anything to get out of doing their schoolwork.
• Dreads doing homework and gets very stressed and anxious or even angry, requesting your presence and assistance constantly.
• Is easily distracted in order to avoid concentrating on schoolwork.
• May be the class clown, disruptive or withdrawn.
• Enjoys electronic games, but needs constant assistance to play computer or electronic games where the reading of instructions is required.
• May seek constant reassurance by continually asking what is required of them or what is about to happen in terms of future events and schedules.
• Has an immediate family member who also displays difficulty with reading, writing and spelling.
There may be other indicators of dyslexia in children that are not listed above. The main indicator is that they struggle to learn English (or the language they are being taught) given the same exposure to learning as the other children. Dyslexia can cross over with other learning difficulties which is why it is important to get a professional diagnosis. In other words a child could have one element of dyslexia and possibly some elements of ADHD, Autism, Asperges, poor memory, etc.

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